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Comprehensive medical reference and preparation for licensing exams.

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Comprehensive medical reference and exam prep adapted for our US & International readers.

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Study aid highlighting the most high yield pharmacology information using full colour figures and descriptive adverse drug reaction icons.

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Coloured atlas of medical images from various medical specialties.

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Why Our Guides Work

Toronto Notes is a concise and comprehensive medical review revised annually by the University of Toronto student contributors under the guidance of the Faculty of Medicine. This reference text started as a compilation of notes written by and shared among University of Toronto students to study for their medical licensing exams. After 34 years, it has become the most reputable study guide used by medical students across Canada and around the world.

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“I think Toronto Notes prepared me well for the wards, and the oral exams I took. It is effective for shelf exams preparation. Toronto Notes is an excellent resource to have a detailed overview of the many subjects that I will not be seeing on an everyday basis.”

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Toronto Notes 2020 Contributors

Editors-in-Chief
Sara Mirali
Ayesh Seneviratne

Production Managers
Megan Drupals
Matthaeus Ware

Clinical Handbook Editors
Helen Genis
Priya Dhir
Meghan Kerr

Website Managers/Atlas Editors
Sylvie Bowden
Emily Chen
Sandra Fiset
Amrit Sampalli

Communications Managers
Courtney Francis
Shane Natalwalla

BMC Production Editors
Julia Devorak
Farah Hamade

PRIMARY

Associate Editors
Vanessa Sheng
Jia Tanwani

EBM Editors
Melissa Allwood
Milica Milakovic

MEDICINE

Associate Editors
Calvin Diep
Jagan Sivakumaran

EBM Editors
Michael Elfassy
Kimia Sheikholeslami

SURGERY

Associate Editors
Danielle Jeong
Nivethan Vela

EBM Editors
Khizar Karim
Ryan Wang

Chapter Editors

Ethical, Legal, and Organizational Medicine
Anna Kurdina
David Wiercigroch

Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine
Kosalan Akilan
Nicole Falzone
John Mikhaeil

Clinical Pharmacology
Felix Chan
Arman Zereshkian

Dermatology
Josh Fletcher
Khalad Maliyar
Arunima Sivanand

Emergency Medicine
Abirami Kirubarajan
Marissa Lu
Aidan McParland
Jason Park

Family Medicine
Kate Dillon
Tiffany Got
Healey Shulman
Alexandra Silberberg

Medical Genetics
Sivakami Mylvaganam

Medical Imaging
Mana Modares
Taryn Rohringer
Daniel Schlam

Pediatrics
Vinyas Harish
Alexandra Kilian
Linlei Ye
Kimberly Young

Psychiatry
Maria Berseneva
Brigida Bruno
Daniel Kapustin
Ronak Saluja

Public Health and Preventive Medicine
Harpreet Chahal
Ben Shachar
Vishalini Sivarajah

Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery
Armin Abadeh
David Bobrowski
Irakli Dzneladze
Kimberley Lau

Endocrinology
Ayesha Tasneem
Yifan Yang
Wid Yaseen

Gastroenterology
Arshia Javidan
Jocelyn Jia
Sechiv Jugnundan

Geriatric Medicine
Laavanya
Dharmakulaseelan
Fizza Manzoor
Hannah Tateishi

Hematology
Sze Wah Samuel
Chan
RuiQi (Richard) Chen
Kathryn Corbett

Infectious Diseases
Monica Shah
Donald Wang

Nephrology
Savar Kaul
Nishwa Shah

Neurology
Megan Hird
Eshita Kapoor
Cathy Meng Fei Li

Respirology
Samuel Gurupatham
Aneesh Thakore

Rheumatology
Daniel Pau
Hilary Pang

General Surgery and Thoracic Surgery
Kimberley Lam-Tin-Cheung
Darby Little
Andreea Matei
Sonieya Nagarajah

Gynecology
Sarah Freeman
Vanessa Rojas Luengas
Ryan Ramos

Neurosurgery
Connor Brenna
Karanbir Brar
Karim Mithani

Obstetrics
Michelle Anderson
Sophia Duong
Emily Li

Ophthalmology
Shicheng (Tony) Jin
Prem Nichani
Daniel Sei Joon Park
Austin Pereira

Orthopedics
Akshdeep Singh Bhatia
Anthony Giuliano
Sam Keshen

Otolaryngology
Amirpouyan (Pouyan)
Namavarian
Gianluca Sampieri
Eunice You

Plastic Surgery
George Ho
Shawn Khan
Janakan Somasundaram

Urology
Adam Bobrowski
Jethro Kwong
Min Joon Lee

Vascular Surgery
Kennedy Ayoo
Brianna Barsanti-Innes

Copy Editors

Ethical, Legal, and Organizational Medicine
Monisha Basu

Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine
Dong An
Fadi Gorgi
Kirusanthy Kaneshwaran

Clinical Pharmacology
Isabelle Laksono

Dermatology
Airiss Chan
Matthew Ladda
Sheida Naderi-Azad

Emergency Medicine
Anuja Bhalerao
Kiran Grant

Family Medicine
Isabelle MacLean
Casey Rosen
Jackie Tsang

Medical Genetics
Janis Chang

Medical Imaging
Yasser Salama
Rachel Trister

Pediatrics
Marina Atalla
Kristen Dietrich
Brian Earl
Stephanie Hosang
Kristen Munro

Psychiatry
Taaha Muhammad
Serena Kay
Amita Mall

Public Health and Preventive Medicine
Krish Bilimoria

Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery
Klaudiusz Stoklosa
Siobhan Wong

Endocrinology
Orly Bogler
Grace Zhao

Gastroenterology
Lauren Beck
Geriatric Medicine
Emily Bellicoso

Hematology
Lauren Clarfield
Isabella Fan

Infectious Diseases
Meera Mahendiran
Elliot Smith

Nephrology
Joel George
Seiwon Park

Neurology
Ortenc Hoxha
Valerie Kim

Respirology
Erica Brant
Rina Huo

Rheumatology
Lindsay Cho
Vibeeshan
Jegatheeswaran

General Surgery and Thoracic Surgery
Isha Narula
Sung Hoon (Peter)
Song

Gynecology
Andrew Butti
Xin Xu

Neurosurgery
Sara Ahmed
Hetshree Joshi

Obstetrics
Ye Rin (Yenah) Seo
Eliya Zhao

Ophthalmology
Ruben Kalaichandran
Abdul Sidiqi

Orthopedics
Anser Daud
Emmanuel Igbokwe

Otolaryngology
Emily DeHaas
Bryan Wong

Plastic Surgery
Shawn Khan
Mithila Somasundaram

Urology
Susan Dong
Julia Hollingsworth

Vascular Surgery
Frozan Safi

All contributing professors have been appointed at the University of Toronto.

PRIMARY

Ethical, Legal, and Organizational Medicine

Ruby Shanker, MBBS, MHSc
University Health Network,
Dalla Lana School of Public Health,
University of Toronto

Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine

Ahtsham Niazi, MBBS, FCARCSI, FRCPC
Department of Anesthesia and Pain
Management, University Health Network

Jeff Wassermann, MD, FRCPC
Department of Anesthesia,
St. Michael's Hospital

Clinical Pharmacology

David Juurlink, BPhm, MD, PhD, FRCPC
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and
Toxicology, Departments of Medicine and
Pediatrics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre

Dermatology

David Adam, MD, FRCPC
Division of Dermatology, Department of
Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital

Marissa Joseph, MD, FRCPC
Division of Dermatology,
Department of Medicine,
Women's College Hospital and
The Hospital for Sick Children

Jensen Yeung, MD, FRCPC
Division of Dermatology,
Department of Medicine,
Women's College Hospital

Emergency Medicine

Mark Freedman, MD, FRCPC
Department of Emergency Medicine,
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre

Fernando Teixeira, MD, FRCPC
Department of Emergency Medicine,
St. Michael's Hospital

Family Medicine

Ruby Alvi, MD, CCFP, MHSc
Department of Family and Community
Medicine, University of Toronto

Azadeh (Azi) Moaveni, MD, CCFP
Department of Family and Community
Medicine, University Health Network,
Toronto Western Hospital

Dr. Sherylan Young, MD, CCFP, FCFP
Department of Family and Community
Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre

Medical Genetics

Hanna Faghfoury, MDCM, FRCPC, FCCMG
The Fred A Litwin Family Centre in Genetic
Medicine, Department of Medicine,
Mount Sinai Hospital and
University Health Network

Joyce So, MD, PhD, FRCPC, FCCMG
The Fred A Litwin Family Centre in Genetic
Medicine, Department of Medicine,
Mount Sinai Hospital and
University Health Network

Medical Imaging

Nasir Jaffer, MD, FRCPC
Division of Abdominal Imaging,
Department of Medical Imaging,
Mount Sinai Hospital and
University Health Network
Joint Department of Medical Imaging,
University of Toronto

John Kavanagh, MD, FRCPC
Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging,
Department of Medical Imaging,
Joint Department of Medical Imaging,
University of Toronto

Eugene Yu, MD, FRCPC
Division of Neuroradiology,
Department of Medical Imaging,
University Health Network

Pediatrics

Julie Johnstone, MD (FRCPC), MScCH
Division of Pediatric Medicine,
Department of Pediatrics,
The Hospital for Sick Children

Laila Premji, MD, FRCPC
Division of Paediatric Medicine,
Department of Paediatrics,
The Hospital for Sick Children

Janaki Vallipuram, MD, FRCPC
Department of Pediatrics,
The Hospital for Sick Children

Psychiatry

Benoit Mulsant, MD, MS, FRCPC
Department of Psychiatry,
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

Dr. Mary Preisman, MD, FRCPC
Department of Psychiatry,
Mount Sinai Hospital

Dr. Amit Rotem, MD
Department of Psychiatry,
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

Dr. Ilana Heather Shawn, MD, FRCPC
Department of Psychiatry,
St. Michael's Hospital
Public Health and Preventive Medicine

Barry Pakes, BSc, MD, MPH, CCFP, DTMH, FRCPC, PhD
Dalla Lana School of Public Health,
University of Toronto

Nav Persaud, MD, MSc, BA, BSc
Department of Family and Community
Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital
Department of Family and Community
Medicine, University of Toronto

MEDICINE

Cardiology

Chi-Ming Chow, MD, CM, MSc, FRCPC
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital

Paul Dorian, MD, MSc, FRCPC
Division of Cardiology, St. Michael's Hospital

Anna Woo, MD CM, SM, DABIM, FRCPC
Division of Cardiology
Department of Medicine
University Health Network
Toronto General Hospital

Endocrinology

Julie Gilmour, MBCHB, FRCPC, MSC
Department of Endocrinology,
St. Michael's Hospital

Karen Gomez-Hernandez, MD, MSc
Department of Endocrinology,
University Health Network
Mount Sinai Hospital

Phillip Segal, MD, FRCPC
Division of Endocrinology,
University Health Network

Gastroenterology

Maria Cino, BSc(Hon), MSc, MD, FRCPC
Division of Gastroenterology,
University Health Network,
Toronto Western Hospital

Gabor Kandel, MD, FRCPC
Division of Gastroenterology,
Department of Medicine,
St. Michael's Hospital

Piero Tartaro, MD, MSc, FRCPC
Division of Gastroenterology,
Department of Medicine,
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre

Geriatric Medicine

Vicky Chau, MD, MScCH, FRCPC
Division of Geriatric Medicine,
Department of Medicine,
University Health Network

Karen D'Silva, MD, MS, FRCPC
Division of Geriatrics,
St Michael's Hospital

Dan Liberman, MD, MScCH, FRCPC
Division of Geriatric Medicine,
Department of Medicine,
University Health Network

Hematology

Gloria Lim, MD, MSc, FRCPC
Division of Hematology,
Department of Medicine,
St. Michael's Hospital

Martina Trinkaus, MD, FRCPC
Division of Hematology,
Department of Medicine,
St. Michael's Hospital

Richard Wells, MD, D.Phil, FRCPC
Division of Medical Oncology and
Hematology, Department of Medicine,
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre

Infectious Diseases

Ari Bitnun, MD, MSc, FRCPC
Division of Infectious Diseases,
Department of Medicine,
The Hospital for Sick Children

Paul Bunce, BSc, MA, MD, FRCPC
Division of Infectious Diseases,
Department of Medicine,
University Health Network

Susan M. Poutanen, MD, MPH, FRCPC
Department of Microbiology,
University Health Network
Mount Sinai Hospital

Nephrology

Zahirieh Alireza, MD, FRCPC
Division of Nephrology,
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre

Istvan Mucsi, MD, PhD, FRCPC
Multi-Organ Transplant Program and
Division of Nephrology,
University Health Network

Gemini Tanna, MD, FRCPC
Division of Nephrology,
Department of Medicine,
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre

Neurology

Esther Bui, MD, FRCPC
Division of Neurology,
Department of Medicine,
University Health Network

Xavier Montalban, MD, PhD
Division of Neurology,
Department of Medicine,
St. Michael's Hospital

Respirology

Anju Anand, MD, FRCPC
Divison of Respirology,
Department of Medicine,
St. Michael's Hospital

Meyer Balter, MD, FRCPC, FACP, FCCP
Division of Respiratory Medicine,
Mount Sinai Hospital

Rheumatology

Simon Carette, MD, FRCPC
Division of Rheumatology,
Department of Medicine,
Mount Sinai Hospital

Arthur Bookman, MD, FRCPC
Division of Rheumatology,
University Health Network

SURGERY

General Surgery and Thoracic Surgery

Abdollah Behzadi, MD, MBA, FRCSC, FACS
Department of General Surgery,
Trillium Health Partners

Michael Ko, MD, PhD, FRCSC
Department of General Surgery,
St Joseph's Health Care

Jesse Pasternak, MD, MPH, FRCSC
Department of General Surgery,
University Health Network

Fayez Quereshy, MD, MBA, FRCSC
Department of General Surgery,
University Health Network,
Toronto Western Hospital

Gynecology

Sari Kives, MD, FRCSC
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
St. Michael's Hospital and
The Hospital for Sick Children

Danielle Vicus, MD, FRCSC, MSc
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre

Fay Weisberg, MD, FRCSC
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology
and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and
Gynecology, University of Toronto

Neurosurgery

Todd Mainprize, MD, FRCSC
Department of Neurosurgery,
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre

Eric Massicotte, MD, MSc, FRCSC
Department of Neurosurgery,
University Health Network,
Toronto Western Hospital

Obstetrics

Rohan D'Souza, MD, MSc, FRCOG, PhD (C)
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Mount Sinai Hospital

Richard Pittini, MD, MEd, FRCSC, FACOG
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health
Sciences Centre

Amanda Selk, MD, FRCSC
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Mount Sinai Hospital

Ophthalmology

Asim Ali, MD, FRCSC
Department of Opthalmology and
Vision Sciences, The Hospital for Sick
Children, University of Toronto

Wai-Ching Lam, MD, FRCSC
Department of Ophthalmology and
Vision Science, University Health Network,
Toronto Western Hospital

Marisa Sit, MD, FRCSC
Department of Opthalmology and
Vision Sciences, University Health Network,
Toronto Western Hospital

Joshua Teichman, MD, FRCSC
Department of Ophthalmology,
Trillium Health Partners

Orthopedics

Jeremy Hall, MD, FRCSC
Dvision of Orthopedic Surgery,
Department of Surgery,
St. Michael's Hospital

Herb von Schroeder, MD, MSc, FRCSC
Divisions of Orthopedic Surgery and
Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery,
University Health Network

Sarah Ward, MD, MLA, MSc , FRCSC
Divisions of Orthopedic Surgery,
Department of Surgery,
St. Michael's Hospital

Dr. David Wasserstein, MD, FRCSC, MSc, MPH(c)
Division of Orthopaedic Surgery,
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre

Otolaryngology

Jonathan Irish, MD, MSc, FRCSC
Department of Otolaryngology -
Head and Neck Surgery,
University Health Network

Evan Propst, MD, MSc, FRCSC
Department of Otolaryngology -
Head and Neck Surgery,
The Hospital for Sick Children

Plastic Surgery

Siba Haykal, MD, PhD, FRCSC
Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery,
Department of Surgery,
University Health Network

Melinda Musgrave, MD, PhD, FRCSC
Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery,
Department of Surgery, St. Michael's Hospital

Urology

Sender Herschorn, MDCM, FRCSC
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery,
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and
Women's College Hospital

Jason Lee, MD, MHPE, FRCSC
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery,
University Health Network,
Toronto General Hospital

Vascular Surgery

Elisa Greco, BSc, MBChB, MD, FRCS
Division of Vascular Surgery,
Department of Surgery,
St. Michael's Hospital

George Oreopoulos, MD, MSc, FRCSC
Division of Vascular Surgery,
Department of Surgery,
University Health Network