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From our quick guides to comprehensive medical notes, we can help you study smarter.

Toronto Notes

Comprehensive medical reference and preparation for licensing exams.

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Essential Med Notes

Comprehensive medical reference and exam prep adapted for our US & International readers.

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Pharmacology You See

Study aid highlighting the most high yield pharmacology information using full colour figures and descriptive adverse drug reaction icons.

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Online Resources

Coloured atlas of medical images from various medical specialties.

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Why Our Guides Work

Toronto Notes is a concise and comprehensive medical review revised annually by the University of Toronto student contributors under the guidance of the Faculty of Medicine. This reference text started as a compilation of notes written by and shared among University of Toronto students to study for their medical licensing exams. After 34 years, it has become the most reputable study guide used by medical students across Canada and around the world.

What People Are Saying

“I like Toronto Notes because I feel it is complete enough to use on its own, and it greatly simplifies the review and study processes. It provides a concise, easy to read, comprehensive summation of all relevant material, and I feel it to be a trustworthy source of information.”

Senior Medical Student Ireland

“I think Toronto Notes prepared me well for the wards, and the oral exams I took. It is effective for shelf exams preparation. Toronto Notes is an excellent resource to have a detailed overview of the many subjects that I will not be seeing on an everyday basis.”

Senior Medical Student Israel, Sachler School of Medicine

“The single resource you need to EXCEL in the wards.”

Graduating Medical Student Albert Einstein School of Medicine

“I still refer to this after 10 years of general practice.”

Family Physician Toronto, Canada

Toronto Notes 2020 Contributors

Editors-in-Chief
Sara Mirali
Ayesh Seneviratne

Production Managers
Megan Drupals
Matthaeus Ware

Clinical Handbook Editors
Helen Genis
Priya Dhir
Meghan Kerr

Website Managers/Atlas Editors
Sylvie Bowden
Emily Chen
Sandra Fiset
Amrit Sampalli

Communications Managers
Courtney Francis
Shane Natalwalla

BMC Production Editors
Julia Devorak
Farah Hamade

PRIMARY

Associate Editors
Vanessa Sheng
Jia Tanwani

EBM Editors
Melissa Allwood
Milica Milakovic

MEDICINE

Associate Editors
Calvin Diep
Jagan Sivakumaran

EBM Editors
Michael Elfassy
Kimia Sheikholeslami

SURGERY

Associate Editors
Danielle Jeong
Nivethan Vela

EBM Editors
Khizar Karim
Ryan Wang

Chapter Editors

Ethical, Legal, and Organizational Medicine
Anna Kurdina
David Wiercigroch

Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine
Kosalan Akilan
Nicole Falzone
John Mikhaeil

Clinical Pharmacology
Felix Chan
Arman Zereshkian

Dermatology
Josh Fletcher
Khalad Maliyar
Arunima Sivanand

Emergency Medicine
Abirami Kirubarajan
Marissa Lu
Aidan McParland
Jason Park

Family Medicine
Kate Dillon
Tiffany Got
Healey Shulman
Alexandra Silberberg

Medical Genetics
Sivakami Mylvaganam

Medical Imaging
Mana Modares
Taryn Rohringer
Daniel Schlam

Pediatrics
Vinyas Harish
Alexandra Kilian
Linlei Ye
Kimberly Young

Psychiatry
Maria Berseneva
Brigida Bruno
Daniel Kapustin
Ronak Saluja

Public Health and Preventive Medicine
Harpreet Chahal
Ben Shachar
Vishalini Sivarajah

Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery
Armin Abadeh
David Bobrowski
Irakli Dzneladze
Kimberley Lau

Endocrinology
Ayesha Tasneem
Yifan Yang
Wid Yaseen

Gastroenterology
Arshia Javidan
Jocelyn Jia
Sechiv Jugnundan

Geriatric Medicine
Laavanya
Dharmakulaseelan
Fizza Manzoor
Hannah Tateishi

Hematology
Sze Wah Samuel
Chan
RuiQi (Richard) Chen
Kathryn Corbett

Infectious Diseases
Monica Shah
Donald Wang

Nephrology
Savar Kaul
Nishwa Shah

Neurology
Megan Hird
Eshita Kapoor
Cathy Meng Fei Li

Respirology
Samuel Gurupatham
Aneesh Thakore

Rheumatology
Daniel Pau
Hilary Pang

General Surgery and Thoracic Surgery
Kimberley Lam-Tin-Cheung
Darby Little
Andreea Matei
Sonieya Nagarajah

Gynecology
Sarah Freeman
Vanessa Rojas Luengas
Ryan Ramos

Neurosurgery
Connor Brenna
Karanbir Brar
Karim Mithani

Obstetrics
Michelle Anderson
Sophia Duong
Emily Li

Ophthalmology
Shicheng (Tony) Jin
Prem Nichani
Daniel Sei Joon Park
Austin Pereira

Orthopedics
Akshdeep Singh Bhatia
Anthony Giuliano
Sam Keshen

Otolaryngology
Amirpouyan (Pouyan)
Namavarian
Gianluca Sampieri
Eunice You

Plastic Surgery
George Ho
Shawn Khan
Janakan Somasundaram

Urology
Adam Bobrowski
Jethro Kwong
Min Joon Lee

Vascular Surgery
Kennedy Ayoo
Brianna Barsanti-Innes

Copy Editors

Ethical, Legal, and Organizational Medicine
Monisha Basu

Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine
Dong An
Fadi Gorgi
Kirusanthy Kaneshwaran

Clinical Pharmacology
Isabelle Laksono

Dermatology
Airiss Chan
Matthew Ladda
Sheida Naderi-Azad

Emergency Medicine
Anuja Bhalerao
Kiran Grant

Family Medicine
Isabelle MacLean
Casey Rosen
Jackie Tsang

Medical Genetics
Janis Chang

Medical Imaging
Yasser Salama
Rachel Trister

Pediatrics
Marina Atalla
Kristen Dietrich
Brian Earl
Stephanie Hosang
Kristen Munro

Psychiatry
Taaha Muhammad
Serena Kay
Amita Mall

Public Health and Preventive Medicine
Krish Bilimoria

Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery
Klaudiusz Stoklosa
Siobhan Wong

Endocrinology
Orly Bogler
Grace Zhao

Gastroenterology
Lauren Beck
Geriatric Medicine
Emily Bellicoso

Hematology
Lauren Clarfield
Isabella Fan

Infectious Diseases
Meera Mahendiran
Elliot Smith

Nephrology
Joel George
Seiwon Park

Neurology
Ortenc Hoxha
Valerie Kim

Respirology
Erica Brant
Rina Huo

Rheumatology
Lindsay Cho
Vibeeshan
Jegatheeswaran

General Surgery and Thoracic Surgery
Isha Narula
Sung Hoon (Peter)
Song

Gynecology
Andrew Butti
Xin Xu

Neurosurgery
Sara Ahmed
Hetshree Joshi

Obstetrics
Ye Rin (Yenah) Seo
Eliya Zhao

Ophthalmology
Ruben Kalaichandran
Abdul Sidiqi

Orthopedics
Anser Daud
Emmanuel Igbokwe

Otolaryngology
Emily DeHaas
Bryan Wong

Plastic Surgery
Shawn Khan
Mithila Somasundaram

Urology
Susan Dong
Julia Hollingsworth

Vascular Surgery
Frozan Safi